Foreword; Opinion; Contents; About the Author; 1: Introduction; 2: My Journey from a Rural Surgeon to an Author; 3: Understanding Biostatistics, Probability, and Tests of Significance; Skewed Distribution Curve; 4: Understanding Basic Statistical Terms; Measures of Central Tendency; Measures of Dispersion or Spread; Variance and Standard Deviation; Confidence Interval and Confidence Level; Errors Type 1 and Type 2 (Alpha and Beta, Respectively); Factors Increasing Type II Error (False Negativity); Conditional Probability; Independence
Normal or Gaussian Distribution and Skewed Distribution5: Tests of Significance; Chi-Square Test or Simply Chi Test; Fisher's Exact Test; Formula for Fisher's Test; ! Is the Symbol for Factorial; Student's T Test or Gosset's Test; One- and Two-Tailed Tests; Paired T Tests; ANOVA; Which Test to Use?; Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon (MWW) Test; Summary; 6: Other Commonly Used Concepts; ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA); Rank Test: Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test; Risk and Risk Ratio; Odds; Odds Ratio; Relative Risk Reduction (RRR), Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR), and Number Needed to Treat (NNT)
Correlation: Relation Between Two Factors Positive Correlation; Negative Correlation; Correlation Coefficient (r); Regression; Linear Regression; Other Types of Regressions; Logistic Regression; Multiple Regression: To Predict an Outcome; The Poisson Regression (Distribution); Cox Regression; Survival Analysis; Kaplan-Meier Estimator or Survival Graph; Multivariate Analysis; Power of a Study; 7: Designing a Study/Clinical Trial/Dissertation, Etc.; General Considerations; Concerns While Designing a Trial; Negative Results; Teamwork; Phases of Trials: Applies to New Drugs
Some Commonly Used Terms Parallel Studies and Crossover Study; Planning and Pilot Study; Sample Size; Pilot Study; Collection and Compilation of Data; Data; Types of Study; Data Collection; Bias; Sampling; Sampling Errors and Nonsampling Errors; Data Analysis and Inference; Presentation of Data and Results; Tables; Bar Chart; Pie Chart; Line Chart; Area Chart; Doughnut Chart; Histogram; Difference Between Histogram and Bar Chart; Clinical Audit; Clinical Audit Versus Research; Clinical Audit Is an Ongoing Process; Problems with Audit; Methodology
8: Writing an Article for Journals Clear Message; Type of the Articles ; Quality Indicators of a Journal; Indexing; Impact Factor; Uniform Requirement for Manuscript Submission; What Happens After Submission?; Common Reasons for Rejection of Article or Article Sent Back for Changes (Problems in the Article) ; Best Chance of Acceptance ; Plagiarism; Peer Review; Copyright; Literature Review; Scholarly Databases; Limitations and Issues; Open-Access Journals; Publish or Perish?; 9: Evidence-Based Medicine; What Is EBM?; Why Do We Need EBM?; How?